Twitter Inc. mit Sitz in San Francisco ist der börsennotierte Betreiber des Mikroblogging-Dienstes Twitter. Social Media ist gesellschaftlich verankert und aus unser aller Alltag nicht mehr wegzudenken. Nahezu jeder ist mindestens in einem der beliebten sozialen. Twitter (englisch für Gezwitscher) ist ein Mikrobloggingdienst des Unternehmens Twitter Inc. Auf Twitter können angemeldete Nutzer telegrammartige.
Statistiken zu TwitterTwitter (englisch für Gezwitscher) ist ein Mikrobloggingdienst des Unternehmens Twitter Inc. Auf Twitter können angemeldete Nutzer telegrammartige. Der amtierende US-Präsident Trump ist bekannt dafür, dass er gern über Twitter und Facebook kommuniziert. Nach den Ausschreitungen in. Twitter Inc. mit Sitz in San Francisco ist der börsennotierte Betreiber des Mikroblogging-Dienstes Twitter.
Twittere Navigation menu VideoHow to use twitter - ट्विटर चलाना सीखे सिर्फ 5 मिनट में - Twitter Full Guide in Hindi Twitter Cards help you richly represent your content on Twitter. Now use analytics to measure their effectiveness. Learn more. The following examples demonstrate how Twitter developer products can be used to build solutions across a diverse set of use cases. Preview the data that is returned by our endpoints. Twitter, Inc. Screenshot The default page shown to logged-out users Type of business Public Type of site News, social networking service Available in Multilingual Traded as NYSE: TWTR S&P Component Founded March 21, ; 14 years ago () Headquarters San Francisco, California United States Area served Worldwide Founder(s) Jack Dorsey Noah Glass Biz Stone Evan Williams Key people. k Followers, Following, 1, Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from DAKOTA JOHNSON (@sharm-el-sheih.comn._). × Twitter now supports + emoji, including choices such as love/heart symbols, country flags, hand gestures and smiley faces. Just click on the following icons to copy, and then paste them into Twitter. Don’t worry if you see an empty square, because Twitter will convert this into a colorful icon once you post the Tweet.
Warum gibt Twittere die Twittere. - Interessante StatistikenDer Verband wirft Twitter vor, nicht ausreichend gegen The Day After Tomorrow Kinox Tweets aktiv zu werden und verlangt insbesondere die Herausgabe der Adressen der entsprechenden Nutzer nach richterlichem Beschluss.
Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags — words or phrases prefixed with a " " sign. Similarly, the " " sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users.
To repost a message from another Twitter user and share it with one's own followers, a user can click the retweet button within the Tweet. Users can reply other accounts' replies.
Since November , users can hide replies to their messages. Since May , users can select who can reply each of their messages: anyone, accounts who follow the poster, specific accounts, and none.
In late , the "Twitter Lists" feature was added, making it possible for users to follow ad hoc lists of authors instead of individual authors.
Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man -based number for international use.
There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone , O2  and Orange  networks.
In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel ,  an alternative platform called smsTweet  was set up by a user to work on all networks.
The tweets were set to a largely constrictive character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages.
The character limit also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as bit. Since June , Twitter has used its own t. In August , Jack Dorsey's account was hacked by using Twitter's SMS to tweet feature to send crude messages.
Days later, the ability to send a tweet via SMS was temporarily turned off. In April , Twitter discontinued the ability to receive SMS messages containing the text of new tweets in most countries.
In , Twitter announced that media such as photos, videos, and the person's handle, would not count against the already constrictive character limit.
A user photo post used to count for a large chunk of a Tweet, about 24 characters. Since March 30, , the Twitter handles are outside the tweet itself, therefore they no longer count towards the character limit.
In , Twitter doubled their historical character-limitation to On Tuesday, , Twitter introduced a feature to improve accessibility for visually impaired people:  A caption with the length of up to characters  can be added to each image optionally.
This caption can be accessed by screen reading software or by hovering the mouse above a picture inside TweetDeck. Having used the services of third parties TinyURL and bit.
The service was tested on the main site using the accounts TwitterAPI, rsarver and raffi. On June 7, , Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature.
A word, phrase, or topic that is mentioned at a greater rate than others is said to be a "trending topic". Trending topics become popular either through a concerted effort by users or because of an event that prompts people to talk about a specific topic.
Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by preteen and teenaged fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like Lady Gaga known as Little Monsters , Justin Bieber Beliebers , Rihanna Rih Navy and One Direction Directioners , and novel series Twilight Twihards and Harry Potter Potterheads.
Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type with limited success.
The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content see image.
Twitter often censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive. Twitter censored the Thatsafrican  and thingsdarkiessay hashtags after users complained that they found the hashtags offensive.
In October , Twitter introduced "Moments"—a feature that allows users to curate tweets from other users into a larger collection.
Twitter initially intended the feature to be used by its in-house editorial team and other partners; they populated a dedicated tab in Twitter's apps, chronicling news headlines, sporting events, and other content.
There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Twitter's own TweetDeck , Salesforce. In June , after being criticized by Kanye West and sued by Tony La Russa over unauthorized accounts run by impersonators , the company launched their "Verified Accounts" program.
In July , Twitter announced a public application process to grant verified status to an account "if it is determined to be of public interest" and that verification "does not imply an endorsement.
Verified status allows access to some features unavailable to other users, such as only seeing mentions from other verified accounts.
In a March 8, live-stream on Twitter's Periscope, CEO Dorsey discussed the idea of allowing any user to get a verified account. In November , Dalit activists of India alleged that higher- caste people get Twitter verification easily and trended hashtags CancelAllBlueTicksInIndia and CasteistTwitter.
In November , Twitter announced a relaunch of its verification system in , and that the new system would rely in part upon Wikipedia.
According to the proposed new policy, Twitter will verify six different types of accounts, and for three of them companies, brands, and influential individuals like activists , the presence of a Wikipedia page will be one criterion for showing that the account has "Off Twitter Notability".
Twitter has mobile apps for iPhone , iPad , Android , Windows 10 , Windows Phone , BlackBerry , and Nokia S This has been released in countries with slow internet connection such as the Philippines.
Twitter Lite has evolved into the main Twitter web interface, see section " interface ". For many years, Twitter has limited the use of third-party applications accessing the service by implementing a , user limit per application.
This was done to increase security and improve the user experience. This feature adds websites to the bottom of a tweet's permalink page.
If a website embedded a tweet onto one of their stories, the tweet will show the websites that mentioned the tweet.
This feature was added onto Twitter so if the viewer doesn't understand what the tweet means, they can click on the sites to read more about what the person is talking about.
In , Twitter began to roll out the ability to attach poll questions to tweets. Polls are open for up to 7 days, and voters are not personally identified.
Initially, polls could have only two options with a maximum of twenty characters per option. Later [ when?
On June 1, , Twitter announced its own integrated photo-sharing service that enables users to upload a photo and attach it to a Tweet right from Twitter.
In , Twitter began to place a larger focus on live streaming video programming, hosting various events including streams of the Republican and Democratic conventions during the U.
During an event in New York in May , Twitter announced that it planned to construct a hour streaming video channel hosted within the service, featuring content from various partners.
Twitter has offered two different methods [ clarify ] of archiving one's own Twitter account data.
Those methods have their individual benefits and disadvantages. Since August , only the latter archival method is available. In December , Twitter introduced a "Tweet archival" feature, which created a ZIP file that contains an offline-browsable archive of all tweets.
The user interface of the tweet archive browser had a design similar to Twitter's — desktop user interface, even until the feature's removal.
The tweet text contents, ID's, time data and source labels are located in the file called " tweets. The ability to export this type of tweet archive, which never existed on the new layout , has been removed entirely in August [when exactly?
Even when accessing the legacy Twitter desktop website layout using the user-agent of an older browser version, the option has disappeared from the account settings.
It was possible to request at least 1 archive per day [ verification needed ]. The original browsable tweet archives did lack a lot of metadata, especially about the account itself, which the new machine-readable archival feature does contain:.
However, this new archival format contains all uploaded multimedia in the highest resolution, which makes its file size usually multiple times as large.
Another disadvantage is that one can only generate one of these archives per 30 days. After obtaining this archive, one has to wait 30 days until requesting the next archive is possible.
During that timespan, the previous archive remains downloadable from the account settings. This feature co-existed with the original browsable tweet archival feature since early , until the latter was removed in August They were first launched in Brazil in the month of March.
In December , a new feature was launched allowing users to share tweets directly to multimedia messaging app Snapchat. In addition, Twitter will test a similar feature for stories on Instagram for a small group of iOS users.
Daily user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. A February Compete. Twitter's annual growth rate decreased from 7.
In , Twitter was mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang , an industry analyst studying social media.
However, comScore also stated in that Twitter had begun to "filter more into the mainstream", and "along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq , Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati".
According to a study by Sysomos in June , women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men—fifty-three percent over forty-seven percent.
It also stated that five percent of users accounted for seventy-five percent of all activity and that New York City has more Twitter users than other cities.
According to Quancast, twenty-seven million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3, In an article published on January 6, , Twitter was confirmed to be the biggest social media network in Japan, with Facebook following closely in second.
In , the country with the most active users on Twitter was the United States. In May , The Industry Standard remarked that Twitter's long-term viability is limited by a lack of revenue.
In July , some of Twitter's revenue and user growth documents were published on TechCrunch after being illegally obtained by Hacker Croll.
In response, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone published a blog post suggesting the possibility of legal action against the hacker. On April 13, , Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase "promoted tweets" to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website, similar to Google Adwords' advertising model.
As of April 13, Twitter announced it had already signed up a number of companies wishing to advertise, including Sony Pictures , Red Bull , Best Buy , and Starbucks.
Users' photos can generate royalty-free revenue for Twitter, and an agreement with World Entertainment News Network WENN was announced in May The self-service advertising platform was launched in March to American Express card members and merchants in the U.
Twitter later reported that numerous small businesses and people who used the self-service tool provided feedback that indicated they were impressed by the feature.
On August 3, , Twitter launched Instant Unlock Card, a new feature that encourages people to tweet about a brand in order to earn rewards and utilize the social media network's conversational ads.
The format itself consists of images or videos with call-to-action buttons and a customizable hashtag. On September 12, , Twitter announced that it had filed papers with the U.
Securities and Exchange Commission SEC ahead of a planned stock market listing. This decision was widely viewed to be a reaction to the botched initial public offering of Facebook.
He said while Twitter would "never lose that feeling" of speed, users could do more with the text. In November , the Paradise Papers , a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment , revealed that Twitter is among the corporations that avoided paying taxes by using offshore companies.
In the US election cycle, In October , Twitter banned the Russian media outlets RT and Sputnik from advertising on their website following the conclusions of the U.
In October , Twitter announced it would stop running political ads on its ad platform effective November This resulted from several spurious claims made by political ads.
Company CEO Dorsey clarified that internet advertising had great power and was extremely effective for commercial advertisers, the power brings significant risks to politics where crucial decisions impact millions of lives.
Twitter places great reliance on open-source software. In the early days of Twitter, tweets were stored in MySQL databases that were temporally sharded large databases were split based on time of posting.
After the huge volume of tweets coming in caused problems reading from and writing to these databases, the company decided that the system needed re-engineering.
From Spring to , the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling. This boost was greater than the 10x improvement that Twitter's engineers envisioned when starting the switch.
The continued development of Twitter has also involved a switch from monolithic development of a single app to an architecture where different services are built independently and joined through remote procedure calls.
As of April 6, , Twitter engineers confirmed that they had switched away from their Ruby on Rails search stack to a Java server they call Blender.
Individual tweets are registered under unique IDs using software called snowflake , and geolocation data is added using 'Rockdove'.
The URL shortener t. Next, the tweets are stored in a MySQL database using Gizzard , and the user receives an acknowledgement that the tweets were sent.
Tweets are then sent to search engines via the Firehose API. The process is managed by FlockDB and takes an average of ms.
On August 16, , Raffi Krikorian , Twitter's vice president of platform engineering, shared in a blog post that the company's infrastructure handled almost , tweets per second during that week, setting a new record.
Krikorian explained that Twitter achieved this record by blending its homegrown and open source technologies. The service's application programming interface API allows other web services and applications to integrate with Twitter.
Twitter introduced the first major redesign of its user interface in September , adopting a dual-pane layout with a navigation bar along the top of the screen, and an increased focus on the inline embedding of multimedia content.
Critics considered the redesign an attempt to emulate features and experiences found in mobile apps and third-party Twitter clients.
The new layout was revised in with a focus on continuity with the web and mobile versions, introducing "Connect" interactions with other users such as replies and "Discover" further information regarding trending topics and news headlines tabs, an updated profile design, and moving all content to the right pane leaving the left pane dedicated to functions and the trending topics list.
About 13, volunteers helped with translating the menu options. In September , a new layout for profiles was introduced, with larger "covers" that could be customized with a custom header image, and a display of the user's recent photos posted.
In September , Twitter began to migrate selected web users to its progressive web app based on its Twitter Lite experience for mobile web , reducing the interface to two columns.
Migrations to this iteration of Twitter increased in April , with some users receiving it with a modified layout. In July , Twitter officially released this redesign, with no further option to opt-out while logged in.
It is designed to further-unify Twitter's user experience between the web and application versions, adopting a three-column layout with a sidebar containing links to common areas including Explore , and features from the mobile version such as multi-account support, and an opt-out for the "top tweets" mode on the timeline.
During an outage, Twitter users were at one time shown the "fail whale" error message image created by Yiying Lu,  illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned "Too many tweets!
Please wait a moment and try again. Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in or about six full days of downtime.
Twitter messages are public, but users can also send private "direct messages". The service also reserves the right to sell this information as an asset if the company changes hands.
A security vulnerability was reported on April 7, , by Nitesh Dhanjani and Rujith. Since Twitter used the phone number of the sender of an SMS message as authentication, malicious users could update someone else's status page by using SMS spoofing.
Within a few weeks of this discovery, Twitter introduced an optional personal identification number PIN that its users could use to authenticate their SMS-originating messages.
Twitter launched the beta version of their "Verified Accounts" service on June 11, , allowing people with public profiles to announce their account name.
The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status. In May , a bug was discovered by İnci Sözlük that could allow a Twitter user to force others to follow them without the other users' consent or knowledge.
For example, comedian Conan O'Brien 's account, which had been set to follow only one person, was changed to receive nearly malicious subscriptions.
In response to Twitter's security breaches, the United States Federal Trade Commission FTC brought charges against the service; the charges were settled on June 24, This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses.
The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users' private information, including maintenance of a "comprehensive information security program" to be independently audited biannually.
On December 14, , the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks.
A "MouseOver" exploit occurred on September 21, , when an XSS Worm became active on Twitter. When a user held the mouse cursor over blacked-out parts of a tweet, the worm within the script would automatically open links and re-post itself on the reader's account.
The origin of the worm is unclear, but Pearce H. Delphin known on Twitter as zzap and a Scandinavian developer, Magnus Holm, both claim to have modified a related exploit found by another user possibly Masato Kinugawa who was using it to create coloured Tweets.
Later, when he found it was exploitable again, he created the account 'RainbowTwtr' and used it to post coloured messages. In May , a claimant known as "CTB" in the case of CTB v Twitter Inc.
This followed gossip posted on Twitter about professional footballer Ryan Giggs 's private life. This led to the British privacy injunctions controversy and the "super-injunction".
Twitter acquired Dasient , a startup that offers malware protection for businesses, in January Twitter announced plans to use Dasient to help remove hateful advertisers on the website.
The "Do Not Track" feature works only on sites that have agreed to the service. In August , it was reported that there was a market in fake Twitter followers used to increase politicians' and celebrities' apparent popularity.
In June , Politico analyzed Twitter handles with the highest rates of fake followers: U. President Barack Obama with The culprits working to generate the fake followers, or "bots", included campaign workers or friends of political candidates.
The people creating the "bots" were often from Eastern Europe and Asia. After a number of high-profile hacks of official accounts, including those of the Associated Press and The Guardian ,  in April , Twitter announced a two-factor login verification as an added measure against hacking.
Twitter announced new reporting and blocking policies in December ,     including a blocking mechanism devised by Randi Harper , a target of GamerGate.
The change made these users subject to Irish and European Union data protection laws . According to them the investigation showed no indications of breach or misuse but recommended everyone to change their password anyway.
On May 13, , Twitter disclosed that they had discovered a bug that accidentally shared location data from iOS devices to an advertiser.
They assured that the data was not retained and that the bug was fixed. On December 20, , Twitter fixed a security vulnerability in its Android app that could allow a hacker to take over a user's account and send tweets or direct messages as well as see private account info.
The Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders has faced criticism for the behavior of some of his supporters online but has deflected such criticism, suggesting that "Russians" were impersonating people claiming to be " Bernie Bro " supporters.
A Twitter spokesperson told CNBC : "Using technology and human review in concert, we proactively monitor Twitter to identify attempts at platform manipulation and mitigate them.
On April 8, , Twitter announced that users outside of the European Economic Area or United Kingdom thus subject to GDPR will no longer be allowed to opt out of sharing "mobile app advertising measurements" to Twitter third-party partners.
On 9 October , Twitter took additional steps to counter misleading campaigns ahead of the US Election. The social network giant aimed at generating context and encouraging the circulation of more thoughtful content.
In January , Twitter was sued by the widow of a U. Twitter disputed the claim, stating that "violent threats and the promotion of terrorism deserve no place on Twitter and, like other social networks, our rules make that clear.
Twitter suspended multiple parody accounts that satirized Russian politics in May , sparking protests and raising questions about where the company stands on freedom of speech.
On May 10, , Twitter announced that they suspended , accounts for promoting terrorism in the July—December period, stating there was a steady decrease in terrorist groups trying to use the platform owing to its "zero-tolerance policy enforcement".
Similarly, Twitter banned 7, accounts and limited , more that had ties to QAnon on July 21, The bans and limits came after QAnon-related accounts began harassing other users through practices of swarming or brigading, coordinated attacks on these individuals through multiple accounts in the weeks prior.
Those accounts limited by Twitter will not appear in searches nor be promoted in other Twitter functions. Twitter said they will continue to ban or limit accounts as necessary, with their support account stating "We will permanently suspend accounts Tweeting about these topics that we know are engaged in violations of our multi-account policy, coordinating abuse around individual victims, or are attempting to evade a previous suspension".
As of July 30, , Twitter will block URLs in tweets that point to external websites that contain malicious content such as malware and phishing content as well or hate speech, speech encouraging violence, terrorism, child sexual exploitation, breaches of privacy, and other similar content that is already banned as part of the content of tweets on the site.
Users that frequently point to such sites may have their accounts suspended. Twitter said this was to bring their policy in line to prevent users from bypassing their tweet content restrictions by simply linking to the banned content.
The rioters that broke into US Capitol Hill included a large amount of QAnon followers. Between January and late July , Twitter had identified and shut down over 7, fake accounts created by Iranian influence operations.
In May , in response to scrutiny over the misuse of Twitter by those seeking to maliciously influence elections, Twitter announced that it would partner with the nonprofit organization Ballotpedia to add special labels verifying the authenticity of political candidates running for election in the U.
In December , Twitter removed 5, accounts for violating their manipulation policies. The company investigated and attributed these accounts to a single state-run information operation, which originated in Saudi Arabia.
The accounts were reported to be a part of a larger group of 88, accounts engaged in spammy behavior. However, Twitter did not disclose all of them as some could possibly be legitimate accounts taken over through hacking.
A Twitter bot is a computer program that automatically posts on Twitter, they are programmed to tweet, retweet, and follow other accounts.
These fake accounts are often used to build large follower populations quickly for advertisers, while others respond to tweets that include a certain word or phrase.
Twitterbots are capable of influencing public opinion about culture, products, and political agendas by automatically generating mass amounts of tweets through imitating human communication.
The social implications these Twitterbots potentially have on human perception are sizeable according to a study published by the ScienceDirect Journal.
Looking at the Computers as Social Actors CASA paradigm, the journal notes, "people exhibit remarkable social reactions to computers and other media, treating them as if they were real people or real places.
In addition to content-generating bots, users can purchase followers, favorites, retweets, and comments on various websites that cater to expanding a user's image through the accumulation of followers.
With more followers, users' profiles gain more attention, thus increasing their popularity. This practice of obtaining mass amounts of twitterbots as followers is not permitted on Twitter.
Twitter is recognized for having one of the most open and powerful developer APIs of any major technology company. From until , Twitter's developer platform experienced strong growth and a highly favorable reputation.
Developers built upon the public API to create the first Twitter mobile phone clients as well as the first URL shortener. Between and , however, Twitter made a number of decisions that were received unfavorably by the developer community.
In October , Twitter announced Fabric, a suite of mobile developer tools built around Crashlytics. By building Fabric on top of Crashlytics, Twitter was able to take advantage of Crashlytics' large adoption and device footprint to rapidly scale usage of MoPub and TwitterKit.
Fabric is recognized as the 1 most popular crash reporting and also the 1 mobile analytics solution among the top iOS apps, beating out Google Analytics , Flurry , and MixPanel.
On April 17, , Twitter announced it would implement an "Innovators Patent Agreement" which would obligate Twitter to only use its patents for defensive purposes [ clarify ].
The agreement went into effect in Twitter has a history of both using and releasing open source software while overcoming technical challenges of their service.
Twitter has been used for a variety of purposes in many industries and scenarios. For example, it has been used to organize protests, sometimes referred to as "Twitter Revolutions",  which include the protests over the Moldovan election , the student protests in Austria , the Gaza—Israel conflict , the Iranian green revolution , the Toronto G20 protests , the Bolivarian Revolution , the Stuttgart21 protests in Germany , the Egyptian Revolution , England riots , the United States Occupy movement , the anti-austerity movement in Spain , the Aganaktismenoi movements in Greece , the demonstration in Rome , the Wisconsin labor protests , the Gaza—Israel conflict , the protests in Brazil , and the Gezi Park protests in Turkey.
The service is also used as a form of civil disobedience : In , users expressed outrage over the Twitter Joke Trial by copying a controversial joke about bombing an airport and attaching the hashtag IAmSpartacus, a reference to the film Spartacus and a sign of solidarity and support to a man controversially prosecuted after posting a tweet joking about bombing an airport if they canceled his flight.
IAmSpartacus became the number one trending topic on Twitter worldwide. During the Arab Spring in early , the number of hashtags mentioning the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt increased.
During the —20 Hong Kong protests , Twitter suspended a core group of 1, "fake" accounts and an associated network of , accounts for operating a disinformation campaign that was linked to the Chinese government.
In their announcement, Twitter released two data sets detailing the core group's account activity. On June 12, , Twitter suspended over 7, accounts from Turkey because those accounts were fake profiles, designed to support the Turkish president and were managed by a central authority.
Turkey's communication director said that the decision was illogical, biased and politically motivated. In May , The Wall Street Journal wrote that social networking services such as Twitter "elicit mixed feelings in the technology-savvy people who have been their early adopters.
Fans say they are a good way to keep in touch with busy friends. But some users are starting to feel too connected, as they grapple with check-in messages at odd hours, higher cellphone bills and the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing what they're having for dinner.
Dvorak described Twitter as "the new CB radio ". A practical use for Twitter's real-time functionality is as an effective de facto emergency communication system for breaking news.
It was neither intended nor designed for high-performance communication, but the idea that it could be used for emergency communication was not lost on the creators, who knew that the service could have wide-reaching effects early on when the company used it to communicate during earthquakes.
Another practical use that is being studied is Twitter's ability to track epidemics and how they spread. Additionally Twitter serves as sensor for natural disasters such as bush fires and earthquakes.
Twitter has been adopted as a communication and learning tool in educational and research  settings mostly in colleges and universities.
Twitter has been an increasingly growing in the field of education, as an effective tool that can be used to encourage learning and idea, or knowledge sharing, in and outside the classroom.
A broad example of a hashtag used in education is "edchat", to communicate with other teachers, and people using that hashtag.
Once teachers find someone they want to talk to, they can either direct message the person, or narrow down the hashtag to make the topic of the conversation more specific using hashtags for scichat science , engchat English , sschat social studies.
In a study, researchers found that young peoples use of Twitter helped to improve relationships with teachers, encourage interactive learning, and ultimately lead to high grades.
People found that sifting through large amounts of data is challenging, however, with the simple nature of Twitter large amount of information became easily accessible.
This ultimately promotes growth and learning among students and educators, not just in the classroom, but virtually and around the world.
Tech writer Bruce Sterling commented in that using Twitter for "literate communication" is "about as likely as firing up a CB radio and hearing some guy recite the Iliad ".
The poets Mira Gonzalez and Tao Lin published a book titled Selected Tweets featuring selections of their tweets over some eight years.
The book was designed to look like a small bible. The novelist Rick Moody wrote a short story for Electric Literature called "Some Contemporary Characters," composed entirely of tweets.
In , Nielsen Online reported that Twitter had a user-retention rate of forty percent. Many people stop using the service after a month; therefore the site may potentially reach only about ten percent of all Internet users.
In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories.
The list ranges from Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey to Lady Gaga and Ashton Kutcher. The service was active from to During the Summer Olympics opening ceremony , in which he appeared at the London Olympic Stadium in person,  Sir Tim Berners-Lee , the founder of the World Wide Web, tweeted "This is for everyone",  which was instantly spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80, people in the audience.
Many commentators have suggested that Twitter radically changed the format of reporting due to instant, short, and frequent communication.
Reilly and Robinson Meyer, Twitter has an outsized impact on the public discourse and media. Writers in several outlets unintentionally cited the opinions of Russian Internet Research Agency -affiliated accounts.
World leaders and their diplomats have taken note of Twitter's rapid expansion and have been increasingly utilizing Twitter diplomacy , the use of Twitter to engage with foreign publics and their own citizens.
US Ambassador to Russia, Michael A. McFaul has been attributed as a pioneer of international Twitter diplomacy. He used Twitter after becoming ambassador in , posting in English and Russian.
However, only 30 of these do their own tweeting, more than 80 do not subscribe to other politicians and many do not follow any accounts.
Donald Trump has used Twitter as a method of providing ideas and information during his presidential campaign in , the transitional period and as US President.
A study performed at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology showed his tweets from these different time periods and through analysis of his tweets, the professors found that President Trump uses a mode called "forensic mode" the most often in his tweets.
This is described as a quick reactive usage, as they found he often used Twitter to show his judgment of the events that occurred regarding both his allies and his enemies.
Now professional protesters, incited by the media, are protesting. Very Unfair! In a study done at New York University in , an analysis and comparison of the Twitter accounts of Donald Trump, Jeb Bush , Bernie Sanders , and Hillary Clinton , found observations showing the goals of each candidate's Twitter during their respective primary elections.
Some comparisons that were made were the use of Aristotle's theory of Rhetoric. The research found that Donald Trump used pathos, the appeal to emotion, in his rhetoric; Bernie Sanders tended to use ethos and logos for his Twitter; Hillary Clinton tended to use logos and pathos to try to convey her values, and Jeb Bush shows that he uses a mix of all three on his account.
The study also looked at the media response to the tweets during the election. The study found that the tweets became more persuasive for the candidates if the media put the tweets in front of more viewers, versus less powerful if they were only visible to those already on Twitter.
In that way, presidential candidates who had their tweets covered more in the news were able to get their message to more potential voters.
More than twenty Roman Catholic cardinals manage active Twitter accounts,  nine of whom were cardinal electors for the Papal conclave.
As of April , his successor, Pope Francis , has 9. In a European Foundation for Democracy - European Policy Centre policy dialogue panel in Brussels , Mark Wallace , CEO of the " CounterExtremism Project " and former U.
S ambassador to the United Nations , said: "Twitter is currently the 'gateway drug' for those seeking to recruit fighters for Islamic terrorism and this must be stopped.
Twitter is banned completely in Iran , China and North Korea ,  and has been intermittently blocked in numerous countries including Egypt , Iraq , Turkey , Venezuela and Turkmenistan on different bases.
After claims in the media that the hashtags wikileaks and occupywallstreet were being censored because they did not show up on the site's list of trending topics, Twitter responded by stating that it does not censor hashtags unless they contain obscenities.
Twitter removed tweets from accounts associated with the Russian Internet Research Agency that were spreading misinformation during and after the election.
At the start of the COVID pandemic, numerous tweets reported false medical information related to the pandemic.
Twitter announced a new policy in which they would label tweets containing misinformation going forward. As part of its means to moderate misinformation, Twitter launched its crowd-sourced Birdwatch program in January Trusted users in the program will have the ability to monitor tweets and replies that may include misinformation and countermessages providing fact-checking as to have Twitter tag these messages appropriately from the Birdwatch community.
Donald Trump had joined Twitter in , prior to his presidency. Many Twitter employees had expressed concern to the company's management about hosting Trump prior to and at the start of his presidency.
Trump continued to use his personal account " realDonaldTrump", rather than the official presidential account " POTUS" that Twitter had arranged previously.
Twitter employees remained highly skeptical of Trump's use of Twitter, particularly after the shooter in the El Paso shooting had written a manifesto that recited many of Trump's prior tweets; employees considered Trump was using Twitter as a "dog whistle".
Twitter opted to eliminate all political advertising in wake of this. After Trump had used his Twitter account on May 26, to issue a statement related to possible fraud associated with mail-in voting ahead of the upcoming primary elections.
Twitter moderators used the aforementioned tools to mark Trump's tweets as "potentially misleading" and added links to a dedicated page with additional articles from other news sources on mail-in voting, the first time they had marked Trump's tweets as such.
Two days later, on May 28, , Trump signed "Executive Order on Preventing Online Censorship"  aimed to impact the protections of Section of the Communications Decency Act which Twitter and other social media sites have to avoid liability for dealing with moderation of user content on their platforms.
Around this time, the killing of George Floyd , an African-American, in an incident involving four white Minneapolis Police Department officers on May 25, sparked racially-driven riots in the city that turned violent by the evening of May Trump tweeted his opinion on the violent protests, stating he had spoken to state governor Tim Walz about bringing National Guard forces to help calm the situation, but concluded the tweet by saying "Any difficulty and we will assume control but, when the looting starts, the shooting starts.
Going into the late months of the United States presidential election , Twitter continued to mark several tweets from Trump, other conservative lawmakers, and various alt- and far-right users with similar misinformation labels, or taking other actions when these tweets violated their user policy.
On October 14, the New York Post published a story containing allegations about Hunter Biden , son of Joe Biden. Twitter and Facebook both implemented measures on their platforms to prevent sharing of the New York Post article, with Twitter doing so according to their Hacked Materials Policy and Facebook per a policy that "in many countries, including in the U.
After the election, in which Biden had been determined to be the winner, Trump and several of his allies continued to dispute the results through legal actions , while continuing to assert there was fraud and other inconsistencies on Twitter.
Twitter continued to apply their moderation as they had done before. Mac Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year On January 6, , pro-Trump protestors stormed the United States Capitol building to violently disrupt the Electoral College vote count after Trump had held a rally earlier in the day promoting the protestors to march to the Capitol and challenge the election results.
During the storming, Trump had tweeted messages including a video message to try to urge calm but which continued to assert the election was fraudulent.
Twitter locked down Trump's account for a twelve-hour period, preventing anyone from retweeting or replying to the tweets, and informed Trump they would restore assess if he removed three specific tweets that continued to assert election fraud and would permanently block his account should he continue to make such claims.
One of Trump's tweet stated "The 75,, great American Patriots who voted for me, AMERICA FIRST, and MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN, will have a GIANT VOICE long into the future.
They will not be disrespected or treated unfairly in any way, shape or form!!! Twitter's decision was criticized by free speech advocates such as the American Civil Liberties Union.
Twitter is increasingly used for TV to be more interactive. In December , Twitter and Nielsen entered a multi-year agreement to produce social TV ratings, which are expected to be commercially available for the fall season as the Nielsen Twitter TV Rating.
Founded in at the MIT Media Lab , Bluefin is a data miner whose analysis tells which brands e. In May , it launched Twitter Amplify —an advertising product for media and consumer brands.
On launch, the concept was limited to NBCUniversal channels and Xfinity cable television subscribers. In an attempt to compete with Twitter's leadership in TV, Facebook introduced a number of features in to drive conversation about TV including hashtags, verified profiles and embeddable posts.
It also opened up new data visualization APIs for TV news and other media outlets, enabling them to search for a word and see a firehose of public posts that mention it as well as show how many people mentioned a word in both public and private posts during a set time frame, with a demographic breakdown of the age, gender, and location of these people.
Facebook struck the partnership to help marketers understand how people are using the social network to talk about topics such as TV.
These acquisitions, as well as a partnership with research company Kantar which it had been working with to develop a suite of analytics tools for the British TV industry since August strengthened Twitter's dominance of the "second screen" — TV viewers using tablets and smartphones to share their TV experience on social media.
With the additional analytic tools, Twitter was able to improve the firm's offering to advertisers, allowing them to, for instance, only promote a tweet onto the timelines of users who were watching a certain programme.
By February , all four major U. TV networks had signed up to the Amplify program, bringing a variety of premium TV content onto the social platform in the form of in-tweet real-time video clips.
In June , Twitter acquired its Amplify partner in the U. The oldest Twitter accounts are 14 accounts that became active on March 21, , all belonging to Twitter employees at the time and including jack Jack Dorsey , biz Biz Stone , and noah Noah Glass.
A selfie orchestrated by 86th Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres during the March 2, broadcast was at the time the most retweeted image ever.
The resulting photo of twelve celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1. According to Guinness World Records , the fastest pace to a million followers was set by actor Robert Downey Jr.
There was a global peak of , tweets in one second, beating the previous record of 33, The most discussed event in Twitter history occurred on October 24, ; the hashtag " ALDubEBTamangPanahon" for Tamang Panahon , a live special episode of the Filipino variety show Eat Bulaga!
On the day of the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bird vocalization and Tweet.
American microblogging service. The default page shown to logged-out users. Jack Dorsey Noah Glass Biz Stone Evan Williams.
Further information: Timeline of Twitter. News 3. Spam 3. Self-promotion 5. Pointless babble Conversational Pass-along value 8.
For more about hashtags, see Hashtag. Main article: Twitter trends. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
September See also: Black Twitter. See also: Deplatforming and Twitter suspensions. Main article: Twitter bot. Main article: Twitter usage. Main articles: Censorship of Twitter , Deplatforming , and Twitter suspensions.
Main article: Biden—Ukraine conspiracy theory. See also: storming of the United States Capitol. Main article: List of most-followed Twitter accounts.
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